Mortality in some waterfowl species, notably the common loon, has been linked to ingestion of lead fishing tackle and has prompted the imposition of bans on the sale and/or use of lead fishing tackle in several states and on National Park Service lands.
A provision to prohibit federal funds from being used to regulate lead fishing tackle and ammunition under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) was included in the 2014 federal spending bill. The temporary legislative fix provided in the federal spending bill supports and reinforces the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) previous decisions and will aid ASA in its efforts toward a permanent solution.
After passing the House on June 26, the Senate Appropriations Committee marked up and approved the FY16 Interior and Environment Appropriations Bill that includes a provision that blocks the EPA from regulating lead in ammunition and fishing tackle.
While the EPA has consistently rejected petitions to ban lead and the appropriations process is a tactical way to stop potential bans, a permanent fix is needed. Legislation introduced in the House and Senate may be the long-tern fix that is necessary. The Hunting, Fishing, and Recreational Shooting Sports Protection Act (S. 225) was introduced by Sens. Thune (R-SD) and Klobuchar (D-MN) on January 21, 2015, and the House’s version called the Sportsmen’s Heritage and Recreational Enhancement (SHARE) Act of 2015 was introduced by Rep. Wittman (R-WV) on May 19. Both bills, if approved, would ensure that any future regulations on fishing tackle are established based on scientific data, not unjustified petitions.
The American Sportfishing Association (ASA) reviewed the existing science on the effects of lead on waterfowl populations to ensure further regulatory action is based upon the best available information. Click here to read ASA’s review of the issue.
Based on this review, ASA found that insufficient data exists to warrant state or federal bans on lead fishing tackle. Further, the loon populations in the U.S. and Canada are stable and increasing throughout the majority of their range. In general, loon populations, as well as other waterfowl species, are subject to much more substantial threats such as habitat loss through shoreline development, disease, water quality issues and predators.
Depending on the alternative metal and current prevailing raw material costs, non-lead fishing tackle products can cost from 10 to 20 times more than lead products. Non-lead products may not be available and most do not perform as well. Mandatory transitioning to non-lead fishing tackle would require significant and costly changes from both the industry and anglers.
ASA acknowledges that lead toxicosis can kill water birds and lead fishing tackle may contribute to this mortality. ASA recommends that before further laws are enacted to restrict lead fishing tackle on a state or national basis, sufficient data must exist to demonstrate that discarded lead tackle is an actual threat to the sustainability of loon or other waterbird populations. ASA realizes that certain waters may be "hot spots" for ingestion of fishing tackle by waterbirds and encourages any restrictions of lead fishing tackle in those waters to be based on sound science that supports the appropriate action for that water body.
Furthermore, ASA continues to encourage and support voluntary angler education programs for the responsible use and proper disposal of lead fishing tackle and urges state and federal fish and wildlife agencies to do the same.
Efforts to Federally Ban Lead Fishing Tackle
On August 23, 2010, the EPA was petitioned by the Center for Biological Diversity and four other organizations to ban all lead in fishing tackle and ammunition under TSCA. This included sinkers, jigs, weighted fly line, and components that contain lead such as brass and ballast in a wide variety of lures, including spinners, stick baits and more. Four days later, the EPA denied the petition for ammunition because it is exempted under TSCA. That November, the EPA rejected the petition to ban lead in all fishing tackle. Opposition from anglers was strong; over 43,000 anglers sent comments requesting dismissal of the petition to EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson through KeepAmericaFishing®. In dismissing the petition, the EPA indicated that the "petitioners have not demonstrated that the requested rule is necessary to protect against an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment, as required by the TSCA." The EPA also cited state-specific actions and the increasing education and outreach activities being undertaken, stating that those actions "…call into question whether a national ban on lead in fishing gear would be the least burdensome, adequately protective approach to address the concern, as called for under TSCA."
Despite the EPA’s findings that a national ban is scientifically unjustified and outside the agency’s jurisdiction, the petitioners continually challenged this decision in court. On November 16, 2011, the petitioners submitted a new similar petition, which was also rejected by the agency.
In 2014, a provision to prohibit federal funds from being used to regulate lead fishing tackle and ammunition under TSCA was included in the end-of-year federal spending bill. This provision has also been included in the Fiscal Year 2016 appropriations bill. The temporary legislative fix provided in the federal spending bill supports and reinforces the EPA’s previous decisions and will aid ASA in its efforts toward a permanent solution. While the EPA has consistently rejected these petitions, a permanent fix is needed to prevent an unnecessary ban from being approved.
The Hunting, Fishing and Recreational Shooting Sports Protection Act
On January 21, 2015, the Hunting, Fishing and Recreational Shooting Protection Act (S. 225) was introduced by Senators John Thune (R-SD) and Amy Klobuchar (D-MN). Rep. Wittman in the House introduced companion legislation– the SHARE Act (H.R. 2406) – in May. Similar bills have been introduced in two previous congresses, the most recent being bipartisan legislation – H.R. 322 – introduced on January 18, 2013, by Representative Jeff Miller (R-FL), which had 94 co-sponsors. Much like last session’s version of the bill, S. 225 will prevent a federal ban on lead in recreational fishing tackle by clarifying the TSCA exemption for ammunition and establishing a similar exemption for fishing tackle.
As in 2014, the Act was nested into a broader package of sportsmen’s legislation introduced on February 5, 2015. ASA is working with both chambers of Congress and its conservation partners to quickly pass this legislation and protect the rights of anglers and hunters who choose to sustainably enjoy their sports.
Current and Proposed State Bans on Lead Fishing Tackle
In addition to ongoing attempts to impose a national ban on lead fishing tackle, several states and federal agencies have already implemented bans on lead fishing tackle and some other states and federal agencies are currently considering bans. Here is a current list of current and proposed bans on lead fishing tackle: